1863 July

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July 1-3- The battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The bloodiest battle of the Civil War dashes Robert E. Lee's hopes for a successful
invasion of the North.

July 4-  Vicksburg, Mississippi surrenders to the Union Army under Grant. The capture of Vicksburg gives the Union complete control of the
Mississippi River, a vital supply line for the Confederate states in the west. At Gettysburg, Lee begins his retreat to Virginia.

July 10-11, 1863- Union naval and land forces attack Confederate defenses near Charleston, South Carolina. Among the Union troops is the
54th Massachusetts Colored Infantry, the first African American regiment of volunteers to see combat.

July 13, 1863- Draft Riots begin in New York City and elsewhere as disgruntled workers and laborers, seething over the draft system
that seemingly favors the rich, attack the draft office and African American churches. The riots continue through July 16.

July 13-14, 1863- Near Falling Waters, Maryland, Union troops skirmish with Lee's rearguard. That night the Army of Northern Virginia
crosses the Potomac River and the Gettysburg Campaign ends.

July 18, 1863- Second Assault on Battery Wagner, South Carolina. Leading the Union infantry charge is the 54th Massachusetts Colored Infantry
commanded by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw who is killed and buried with the dead of his regiment.